The most important piece of advice here is “do things in the right order.” This will save you lots of back and forth. First, get your car inspected at a posted inspection station. Then, go to the local County Tax Collector’s Office (http://txdmv.gov/tax-assessor-collectors/county-tax-offices). In addition to the inspection receipt, you’ll need proof of insurance, and proof of vehicle ownership.
Then, you can apply for a Texas driver’s license. (http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/driverlicense/movingtotexas.htm)